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بازدید : 3536 مرتبه
تاریخ : 2 تیر 1392
The Khazar Empire
تاریخ ترکان خزر
امپراطوری خزر ها
تاریخ ترکان خزر
امپراطوری خزر ها
نام خزر همانند نام آذربایجان نامی با ریشه ترکی است.خزر از کلمه ترکی OKH-AS-ER و آذربایجان از AS-ER-BAY-JAN گرفته شده است
The Khazar Empire came into being during the 5th century AD and lasted until the 13th century AD. It was destroyed by the unforgiving onslaught and expansion of Cengiz Khan towards the west. The territories of the Khazar Empire shown below extended from the north-western regions of the Black Sea up to and including the northern banks of the Caspian Sea. The name of the Caspian Sea is a transformed form of the harsh laryngeal Khazar, to the smooth labial Caspian form. Khazar is clearly made out of OKH-AS-ER meaning “the Okh and As people” (see Chapter 4, The Asiatic Scythians). Today a country named Azerbaijan still exists on the western side of the Caspian Sea whose name has been dissected as AS-ER-BAY-JAN meaning “The spiritual leadership of the As people” in Chapter 4. Therefore, Khazaria means “the country of the Okh and As”.
The Khazar people belonged to a grouping of Turks who spoke a Turkic dialect and used the runic alphabet of the Orhun syllabary belonging to the Gökturks of central Asia. The ancient Turks defined the four directions, north, south, east and west with the help of colors. West was blue, east was yellow, north was black and south was white. Considering their location in Asia one can easily realize the reason of such color selections. “Gök” was a word meaning “sky” or “heaven” as well as “blue” and “west”. So, in the name Gökturk we find several meanings such as “western Turks”, “blue Turks” and “heavenly Turks”. The royalty of the Khazars was descended from the Ashina (Asena) or AS-ANA Turks, which was most probably a matriarchal society. Since As-Ana means “As Mother” we can safely guess that they were culturally and most probably genetically related to the Scythians and Amazons who lived in the same region some centuries ago (see Chapter 33, Western Anatolia).
Kiev, which is the capital city of Ukraine was established by the Khazars. Kiev is a name concatenated from two Turkish words Kiyi and Ev meaning “shore house”; a name quite appropriate for the ancient settlement which is located on the shores of the Dnipro River. As the Christian Russians from the west and the Islamic Arabs from the south increased their attacks towards Khazaria, the royalty who believed in Tengri, decided to adopt the monotheistic religion of Judaism. In this selection they hoped to remain free of the physical as well as the spiritual pressure of the surrounding powers. The Khazars were ruled by a succession of Jewish kings until the Mongols came from the east and destroyed their cities. As the Khazar Empire came to its end the Khazars dispersed in all directions and formed local communities in Hungary, Germany, Lithuania, Ukraine and Ossetia. Since Khazar males were expert riders –a cultural trait handed over from their ancestral Turkic origin- they formed the elite light cavalry of most western armies. These riders came to be known as the Huszar in Hungary and the Hussard in France. There is a city called Khusar-Kintsag in northern Caucasus, which was probably founded by the ancient Khasars. Below we see a representation of a Hussard. The tall hat is a transformed form of the Asiatic “kalpak”.
The word shown below has been given as an example for the Khazar script and has been interpreted as OKURUM, meaning “I read it” in modern Turkish (1).
The script has to be read from right to left, similar to all Orhun texts which have been written in that order. The black letters at the top are the Khazar letters and the red ones under them belong to the Orhun syllabary. The first letter on the right, which is not found among the Orhun letters, might be considered as being influenced from or related to the Roman K.
Here are three example sentences in the Khazar language. They clearly demonstrate their Turkic origin, since their meaning is still understandable with the help of modern Turkish.
Kaytmamen artkari sezimden.
(I never come back from my word)
Da algıshladi allarni tangri
(and God ‘supported / praised’ them)
It is interesting to note that the word “algısh” or “alkısh” means “hand-clapping” in Turkish, an act of joy and support for praising a completed performance.
Sendir otnu suvba, yamanlikni dostlukba.
(Extinguish the fire with water and the adversity with friendship)
(1) An Introduction to the History of Khazaria, 1999 and The Jews of Khazaria by Kevin Alan Brook, Rowman and Littlefield 2006.
موضوع : بدون موضوع - بدون موضوع
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